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SwitzerlandSwitzerland (Latin: Confoederatio Helvetica hence its abbreviation CH), is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western Europe, where it is bordered by German to the north, France to the west, Italy to the south, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east.
Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8 million people is concentrated mostly on the Plateau where the largest cities are to be found. Among them are the two global cities and economic centres of Zurich and Geneva
The Swiss Confederation has a long history of armed neutralityâ€”it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815 €”and did not join the United Nations until 2002 It pursues, however, an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. Switzerland is also the birthplace of the Red Cross and home to a large number of international organizations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association and is part of the Schengen Area â€“ although it is notably not a member of the European Union, nor the European Economic Area.
Switzerland is one of the richest countries in the world by per capita gross domestic product and has the highest wealth per adult (financial and non-financial assets) of any country in the world. Zurich and Geneva have respectively been ranked as the cities with the second and eighth highest quality of life in the world. It has the world's nineteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and the thirty-sixth largest by purchasing power parity. It is the twentieth largest exporter and eighteenth largest importer of goods.
Switzerland comprises three main linguistic and cultural regions: German French and Italian to which the Romansh speaking valleys are added. The Swiss, therefore, though predominantly German speaking, do not form a nation in the sense of a common ethnic or linguistic identity. The strong sense of belonging to the country is founded on the common historical background, shared values (federal sm and direct democracy) and Alpine symbolism. The establishment of the Swiss Confederation is traditionally dated to 1 August 1291 Swiss National Day is celebrated on the anniversary.